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Systematic Reviews: Screening, Appraisal, & Analysis

Grading Systems for Appraisal

The Equator Network maintains comprehensive searchable database of reporting guidelines and methodology standards for different types of research studies.

Finding Full-Text Articles

Instructions on finding full-text articles from Pratt Library and UC Libraries subscriptions are available in our Resource Discovery Guide.

Use the "Find Full-Text" feature in EndNote - instructions in our EndNote Guide.

If its not avaialble through our subscriptions try Interlibrary Loan via our Article Request Form or request directly from PubMed.  

Email with any questions about finding full-text articles.

Critical Appraisal Tools

Risk of Bias

Appraisal Checklists

  • Cincinnati Children's Hospital Appraisal Resources - Let Evidence Guide Every Decision (LEGEND)
  • Cochrane Collaboration
  • Cochrane Collaborations tool for assessing risk of bias
  • ROBINS-I tool :Risk of Bias in Non-randomized Studies of Interventions (also called ACROBAT-NRSI)
  • Joanna Briggs Institute appraisal checklists: case control studies, case reports/studies, cohort studies, randomized controlled trials, qualitative and more
  • Nutrition Evidence Library (USDA): checklist for interventions and surveys/cohort
  • What Works Clearinghouse: education intervention studies
  • SYRCLE for animal studies, see Hooijmans, CR, Rovers, MM, de Vries, RBM, Leenaars, M. Ritskes-Hoitinga, M, and Langendam, MW SYRCLE’s risk of bias tool for animal studies (2013) BMC Medical Research Methodology201414:43. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2288-14-43
  • GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group) checklists, publication, software, training, and more

Cochrane Training on Using GRADE

GRADE is a systematic approach to rating the certainty of evidence in systematic reviews and other evidence syntheses. Free online training is available from Cochrane on using GRADE