Skip to main content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
Grading Systems for Appraisal
The Equator Network maintains comprehensive searchable database of reporting guidelines and methodology standards for different types of research studies.
Finding Full-Text Articles
Critical Appraisal Tools
Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine Systematic Review Critical Appraisal Worksheet
Available in multiple languages https://www.cebm.net/2014/06/critical-appraisal/
A MeaSurement Tool to Assess systematic Reviews (AMSTAR)
AMSTAR stands for A MeaSurement Tool to Assess systematic Reviews. There has been a proliferation of systematic reviews as one of the key tools for evidence-based health care. This has presented both opportunities and risks. The opportunities being that it creates an environment where researchers can base decisions on accurate, succinct, credible, comprehensive and comprehensible summaries of the best available evidence on a topic thereby minimising error and bias. The risks include variation in quality and empirical validation.
This set of eight critical appraisal tools are designed to be used when reading research, these include tools for Systematic Reviews, Randomised Controlled Trials, Cohort Studies, Case Control Studies, Economic Evaluations, Diagnostic Studies, Qualitative studies and Clinical Prediction Rule.
MECIR: Methodological Expectations of Cochrane Intervention Reviews
These MECIR standards present a guide to the conduct and reporting of Cochrane Intervention Reviews. Each set of standards include links to Cochrane Training resources; the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions (the Handbook) and other resources will be added as they are developed.
Risk of Bias
ROBIS - Risk of Bias in Systematic Reviews
ROBIS is a new tool for assessing the risk of bias in systematic reviews (rather than in primary studies). Here you can find the tool itself, information to help you complete a ROBIS assessment, and resources to help you present the results of your ROBIS assessment.
- Cincinnati Children's Hospital Appraisal Resources - Let Evidence Guide Every Decision (LEGEND)
- Cochrane Collaboration
- Cochrane Collaborations tool for assessing risk of bias
- ROBINS-I tool :Risk of Bias in Non-randomized Studies of Interventions (also called ACROBAT-NRSI)
- Joanna Briggs Institute appraisal checklists: case control studies, case reports/studies, cohort studies, randomized controlled trials, qualitative and more
- Nutrition Evidence Library (USDA): checklist for interventions and surveys/cohort
- What Works Clearinghouse: education intervention studies
- SYRCLE for animal studies, see Hooijmans, CR, Rovers, MM, de Vries, RBM, Leenaars, M. Ritskes-Hoitinga, M, and Langendam, MW SYRCLE’s risk of bias tool for animal studies (2013) BMC Medical Research Methodology201414:43. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2288-14-43
- GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group) checklists, publication, software, training, and more
Cochrane Training on Using GRADE
GRADE is a systematic approach to rating the certainty of evidence in systematic reviews and other evidence syntheses. Free online training is available from Cochrane on using GRADE
Introduction to GRADE
This is a series of eight introductory slidecasts about using the GRADE approach to grade the evidence in systematic reviews and create a ‘Summary of findings’ (SoF) table. The slidecasts were prepared and narrated by Holger Schünemann and Nancy Santesso from the Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence, and Impact (formerly “Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics”), McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.
Common Errors: GRADE and interpretation of findings
This module covers identifying common errors in using the GRADE method to assess and present the quality of evidence in Cochrane Reviews. You will learn to suggest the ways to correct those errors. Click on the button below to start the course.
You must register for a **free** Cochrane Account to access this training.