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AMA and APA Citation and Style Guide: American Psychological Association (APA)

APA STYLE

The American Psychological Association (AMA) style was created in 1929 establishing standard of citation style in the fields of social and behavioral sciences.

This guide goes over the most common questions using the APA style and is not intended to be the complete authority on these styles. For detailed information on these two styles please consult the actual style guides as seen in the book links.

PLEASE NOTE THIS GUIDE IS ACCORDING TO APA 6th. Watch this page for updates to comply with AMA 7th!

BOOKS

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APA Style Blog

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APA BASIC INFORMATION

  RULE EXAMPLE
In text reference References within the text use author's last name-year of publication within () with a list at the end in alphabetical order using the first author's name and year of publication. Acute pancreatitis in children was reported in 2017 by the NASPGHAN Pancreas Committee. (Abu-El-Haija et al., 2017; Thomson, Modi, Glauser, Rausch, & Steve White, 2017).
Author initials Use initials with periods for author names with a space between the initials. Add a comma between author names. Smith, J.R.
Author number rule If there are seven or more authors list the first six followed by three ellipsis points ... followed by the final author's name. Abu-El-Haija, M., Kumar, S., Szabo, F., Werlin, S., Conwell, D., Banks, P., ... NASPGHAN Pancreas Committee.
Journal names Use the full name and italicize journal titles (without periods). Journal of Pediatrics
Title of publication Book, Book Chapter, Journal:
Titles are in sentence style. Capitalize the first word of the title and proper nouns, use lower case for anything else.

Book:
ECGs made easy : pocket reference

Book chapter:
Active learning strategies. In T. L. Schwinghammer & J. M. Koehler (Eds.), Pharmacotherapy casebook : A patient-focused approach

Journal:
The Impact of nonadherence to antiseizure drugs on seizure outcomes in an animal model of epilepsy

DOI

Use DOI (digital object identifier) if available.

Gage, B. F., Fihn, S. D., & White, R. H. Management and Dosing of Warfarin Therapy. Am J Med, 109(6): 481-488. doi: 10.1016/S0002-9343(00)00545-3.

Location (Place of publication) Name the city where the publishing firm is located followed by a comma and the two letter abbreviation of the state. If more than one location appears us the first one. In the case of a non-US location use the city followed by a comma and the country. Cincinnati, OH
Boston, MA
Cham, Switzerland
Berlin, Germany
Page numbers Page numbers include first page hyphen final page (full number) without spaces. 161-168

Please refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition  for more detailed directions. See link to this item in a catalog in the Books box on the left.

NUMBER OF AUTHORS

AUTHOR-IN-TEXT

One (Hershey, A. D., 2015)
Two (Kacperski & Hershey, 2017)
Three to Five (Thomson, Modi, Glauser, Rausch, & White, 2017)                                                                                  
Six or More (Abu-El-Haija et al., 2017)
NUMBER OF AUTHORS

AUTHOR-IN REFERENCE LIST

One Hershey, A. D.
Two Kacperski, J., & Hershey, A. D.
Three to Seven Thomson, K. E., Modi, A. C., Glauser, T. A., Rausch, J. R., & Steve White, S.
More than Seven Martin, V. T., Allen, J. R., Houle, T. T., Powers, S. W., Kabbouche, M. A., O'Brien, H. L., ... Berkhout, B.

Notes:

  • In the case of a publication without an author use the corporate body responsible for the publication e.g. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
  • Surnames that contain prefixes or particles such as von, de, or van and are spelled out and capitalized using the preference of the author.
  • Surnames that contain roman numbers and abbreviations (e.g.  Jr, Sr, II, III) are not included in the in-text citation but are included in the reference list at the end of the publication:
    • In-text (Dobbins & Smith, 2015)
    • Reference list Dobbins W. A., II, & Smith J. D., Jr.

Please refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition  for more detailed directions. See link to this item in a catalog in the Books box on the left.

TYPE

MINIMUM ACCEPTABLE DATA FOR REFERENCES

Print Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages.
Online Author, A. A. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Online Periodical, volume number(issue number if available). Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/
DOI Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages. http://dx.doi.org/xx.xxx/yyyyy 
In Press Author, A. A.. (in press). Title of article. Title of Periodical.

Bold words mean add the word (DO NOT bold the actual word) to your citation as written.

TYPE EXAMPLES
One Author Hershey, A. D. Pediatric Headache: Where we are and where we are going. Headache, 55(10), 1356-1357.
Two Authors Kacperski, J., & Hershey, A. D. Newly Approved Agents for the Treatment and Prevention of Pediatric Migraine. CNS Drugs, 30(9), 837-844. doi: 10.1007/s40263-016-0375-y.
Three to Seven Authors Thomson, K. E., Modi, A. C., Glauser, T. A., Rausch, J. R., & Steve White, H. The Impact of nonadherence to antiseizure drugs on seizure outcomes in an animal model of epilepsy. Epilepsia, 58(6), 1054-1062.
More than Seven Author Stark, L. J., Filigno, S. S., Bolling, C., Ratcliff, M. B., Kichler, J. C., Robson, S. L., ... & Zion, C. (2017). Learning about activity and understanding nutrition for child health (LAUNCH): Rationale, design, and implementation of a randomized clinical trial of a family-based pediatric weight management program for preschoolers. Contemporary Clinical Trials, 52, 10-19.
Online

 

Kuznietsova, H. M., Luzhenetska, V. K., Kotlyar, I. P., & Rybalchenko, V. K. Effects of 5-Amyno-4-(1,3-Benzothyazol-2-Yn)-1-(3-Methoxyphenyl)-1,2-Dihydro-3h-Pyrrol-3-One Intake on digestive system in a rat model of colon cancer. Scientific World Journal, 2015, 376576. Retrieved from https://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/376576/abs/.

DOI Vijgen, L., Keyaerts, E., Zlateva, K., & Van Ranst, M. Identification of six sew polymorphisms in the human coronavirus 229e receptor gene (aminopeptidase N/Cd13). International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 8(4), 217-222. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2004.03.004.
In Press

Dignan, P.S.J. (In press). Congenital malformations. Journal of Pediatrics.

Please refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition for more detailed directions. See link to this item in a catalog in the Books box on the left.

TYPE MINIMUM ACCEPTABLE DATE FOR REFERENCES 
Authored book-Print

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work: Subtitle (# ed.). Location: Publisher.

Please note a first edition book does not include 1st ed in the citation.

Authored book-Online

Author, A. A. (Year). Book title: Subtitle (# ed.). Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

Please note that there is no period at the end of this citation as it could interfere with the URL.

Authored book-Online (DOI)

Author, A. A. (Year). Book title: Subtitle (# ed.). Location: Publisher. http://dx.doi.org/xx.xxx/yyyyy

Please note that there is no period at the end of this citation as it could interfere with the URL.

Edited book-Print Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (Year). Book title: Subtitle. (# ed.). Location: Publisher.
Edited book-Online Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (Year). Book title: Subtitle (# ed.). Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/xx.xxx/yyyyy

Please note that there is no period at the end of this citation as it could interfere with the URL.
Edited book-Online
(DOI)

Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (Year). Book title: Subtitle (# ed.). http://dx.doi.org/xx.xxx/yyyyy

Please note that there is no period at the end of this citation as it could interfere with the URL.

TYPE EXAMPLES
Authored book-Print
(
first edition)
Aehlert, B. (1995). ECGs made easy pocket reference. St. Louis, MO, Mosby Lifeline.
Authored book-Print
(other than first edition)
Aehlert, B. (2013). ECGs made easy. 5th ed. St, Louis, MO: London: Mosby Jems.
Authored book-Online

American Academy of Pediatrics. (2012). Red book online. Retrieved from http://www.redbook.com/redbook/online.

Authored book-Online (DOI) Gamulescu, M., Helbig, H., Wachtlin, J. (Eds.). (2017). Retinal pigment epithelial detachemnt: Differential diagnosis and therapy. Switzerland: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-56133-2
Edited book-Print
(first edition)

Sejersen T, Wang, C. H. (Eds.). (2014). Acute pediatric neurology. London: Springer.

Edited book-Print (other than first edition) Sanchez-Serrano, J. J., Salinas, J. (Eds.). (2003). Arabidopsis protocols. (3rd ed.). New York: Humana Press.
Edited book-Online Valle, D. (Ed.). (2017). The Online metabolic and molecular bases of inherited disease. New York: McGraw-Hill. Retrieved from http://ommbid.mhmedical.com/
Edited book-Online (DOI) Mehle, E. (Ed.). (2017). Sinus headache, migraine, and the otolaryngologist: A Comprehensive clinical guide. Switzerland: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-50376-9

 

TYPES MINIMUM ACCEPTABLE DATA FOR REFERENCES
Book chapter-Print
(no DOI)
 
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of chapter. In A. A. Editor (Ed), Title of book (pp. Pages of chapter). Location: Publisher.
Book Chapter-Online Author, A. A. (Year). Title of chapter. In B. B. Editor (Ed.), Title of book [E-reader version, if applicable] (pp. Pages of chapter). Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url
Book Chapter-Online
(DOI)
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of chapter. In B. B. Editor (Ed.), Title of book [E-reader version, if applicable] (pp. Pages of chapter). doi:xxxxx
TYPES EXAMPLES
Book chapter-Print
 
Krikwood, C. (2011). Active Learning Strategies. In T. L. Schwinghammer & J. M. Koehler (Eds.), Pharmacotherapy casebook : A patient-focused approach (8th ed., pp. 9-12). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical.
Book Chapter-Online Callahan, S., Mansour, M., & Simmons, J. (2017). Patient and family–centered care and the patient-centered medical home. In M. Kline (Ed.), Rudolph's pediatrics (23e ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Retrieved from http://accesspediatrics.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=2126&sectionid=16328098
Book Chapter-Online
(DOI)

Hindlie, M., Wu, D., Anselme, K., Gallet, O., & Di Martino, P. (2016). Effects of fibronection coatin on bacterial and osteoblast progenitor cells adherence in a co-culture assay. In G. Donelli (Ed.), Advances in microbiology, infectious diseases and public health (pp. 17-30). Cham, Switerland: Springer. doi: 10.1007/5584_2016_41

 

 

TYPE

MINIMUM ACCEPTABLE DATA FOR REFERENCES  

POSTER Author, A. A.  (Month Day year). Title. Poster session presented at Title of the Conference, City, State.
PAPER Author, A. A. (Month Day year). Title. Paper presented at Title of the Conference, City, State.

Bold words mean add the words (DO NOT bold) to your citation as written.

TYPE EXAMPLES
POSTER Biro, F., Ewan, L., McLinden, D., Dejonckheere, M., & Vaughn, L. (March 18, 2015). Mapping views of adolescent health stakeholders. Poster session presented at Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine,  Los Angeles, CA.
PAPER Pestiran J.P., Matykiewicz, P.M., Grupp-Phelan, J., Lavanier, S.A., Combs, J., & Kowatch, R. (June 19, 2008). Using natural language processing to classify suicide notes. Paper presented at BioNLP 2008; Current trends in biomedical natural language processing, Columbus, OH.

 

TYPE MINIMUM ACCEPTABLE DATA FOR REFERENCES
Web Site-Author

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date). Title. Publisher. Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/.

Web Site-No Author Organization responsible for the site (Year, Month Date). Title. PublisherRetrieved from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/.

Bold words mean add the words (DO NOT bold) to your citation as written.

TYPE

EXAMPLES

Web Site-Author
Devarajan, P. (2017, August 01). Myoglobinuria. Medscape. Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/982711.
Web Site-No Author Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016, May 5).Air Pollution & Respiratory Health. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/nceh/airpollution/default.htm.
Please note the title of this webpage is italicized because this is a report or doc that stands alone.

 

TYPES MINIMUM DATE REQUIRED FOR REFERENCES
Legislative Material-US Federal
Administrative Regulations
Title of regulation. Fed Regist. Title number CFR Section (Year).

Please note items from the Federal Register. are now treated like Journal references.
Government Agencies or Bulletins Author, A.A. (Year). Title of bulletin. Location: Name of issuing bureau, agency, department or other governmental division.

Bold words mean add the word (DO NOT bold the actual word) to your citation as written. 

TYPES EXAMPLES
Legislative Material-Federal Register
Methadone in maintenance and detoxification: joint revision of conditions on use, 21 CFR §291 (1989).
Government Agencies or Bulletins

World Health Organization. (2002). World health report 2002: Reducing risk promoting healthy Life. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.

 

TYPE MINIMUM ACCEPTABLE DATA FOR REFERENCES
NEWSPAPER-print

Author. (Year, Month Date). Title of article. Newspaper. p. (or pp.) page number.

NEWSPAPER-electronic Author. (Year, Month Date). Title of article. Newspaper. Retrieved from URL.
TYPE EXAMPLE
NEWSPAPER- print Brody, J.E. (1998, April 28). Alternative medicine makes inroads, but watch out for curves. New York Times, p. F9.
NEWSPAPER- electronic Wallace, R. (2006, September 3). Teens who drink run risk of causing damage to brain. Post-Tribune (IN) from September 7, 2017, from http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1N1-1148504166A02348.html?refid=easy_hf
NEWSPAPER-no author  

 

DID YOU FIND A MISTAKE?

Every effort has been made to be as accurate as possible with these examples. If you see something that does not look correct please refer to Please refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association for more detailed directions on this style. See link to this item in a catalog in the Books box above. More importantly please email me, cite the section with the correct information and I will not only correct the information but send you a prize*.

*Don't get too excited about the prize but I will send you something that makes it worth the effort!