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Systematic Reviews: Screening, Appraisal, & Analysis

Grading Systems for Appraisal

The Equator Network maintains comprehensive searchable database of reporting guidelines and methodology standards for different types of research studies.

Finding Full-Text Articles

Instructions on finding full-text articles from Pratt Library and UC Libraries subscriptions are available in our Resource Discovery Guide.

Use the "Find Full-Text" feature in EndNote - instructions in our EndNote Guide.

If its not avaialble through our subscriptions try Interlibrary Loan via our Article Request Form or request directly from PubMed.  

Email prattlibrary@cchmc.org with any questions about finding full-text articles.

Critical Appraisal Tools

Risk of Bias

Appraisal Checklists

  • Cincinnati Children's Hospital Appraisal Resources - Let Evidence Guide Every Decision (LEGEND)
  • Cochrane Collaboration
  • Cochrane Collaborations tool for assessing risk of bias
  • ROBINS-I tool :Risk of Bias in Non-randomized Studies of Interventions (also called ACROBAT-NRSI)
  • Joanna Briggs Institute appraisal checklists: case control studies, case reports/studies, cohort studies, randomized controlled trials, qualitative and more
  • Nutrition Evidence Library (USDA): checklist for interventions and surveys/cohort
  • What Works Clearinghouse: education intervention studies
  • SYRCLE for animal studies, see Hooijmans, CR, Rovers, MM, de Vries, RBM, Leenaars, M. Ritskes-Hoitinga, M, and Langendam, MW SYRCLE’s risk of bias tool for animal studies (2013) BMC Medical Research Methodology201414:43. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2288-14-43
  • GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group) checklists, publication, software, training, and more

Cochrane Training on Using GRADE

GRADE is a systematic approach to rating the certainty of evidence in systematic reviews and other evidence syntheses. Free online training is available from Cochrane on using GRADE

https://training.cochrane.org/grade-approach